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開放空間會議定義和應用方法 Open Space Technology (OST) Definition & Application

開放空間會議:
Open Space Technology is:

協助組織面對改變。包括易引起爭議的會議,或因差異性、複雜性、潛在及實際的衝突而需馬上解決的議題。
A group process for organizational change, including productive meetings and resolving major issues involving diversity, complexity, potential or actual conflict, needing immediate results

是領導力和對結果負責及承諾的延伸。
A means of expanding leadership capabilities and broad-based commitment to and responsibility for results.

是策劃、交換意見、取得及分享資訊的過程.
A process for planning, dialogue, information gathering and sharing.

是提昇創造性及熱忱的方法。就像延長會議的休息時間以達到大家充分地參與,或休息過後的熱情,及專注於可實現的執行方案中。
An approach that increases access to creativity and passion; it’s like an extended coffee break in terms of real participation, like a retreat in terms of energizing participants, and like a focused meeting in terms of delivering attainable action plans."

1983年,Harrison Owen 籌辦了一個人數多達 500 人的會議,但是他對會議的結果卻非常失望,從這個會議中他發現休息時間是與會者參與討論及精神狀況最佳的時候,於是他決定創造出一種可以延續休息時間且使會議發生效益的會議方式 - 開放空間的會議技巧因而誕生。
In 1983, Harrison Owen organized a conference for 500 people, but he was sorely disappointed with the result. He realized that the highest energy, when people were most productive, was during the breaks. He decided to create an effective meeting structure that maintained the energy of the "coffee break." And so, Open Space Technology was born.

Harrison 發現在世界各地的土著部落中,許多會議的進行都是以大家圍個圓圈為主,最主要的目的是讓每一個人都有說話的機會。經過不斷地嘗試及錯誤,如今他所發明的這種會議型態已成功地運用在世界各地的公司行號、政府機關及社會團體中。
From indigenous people around the globe, Harrison discovered common components in many cultures, for example, meetings happen in a circle where all are given an opportunity to speak. Through trial and error he (re)discovered a meeting format that is now being used successfully in companies, governments, and communities around the world.

熱忱及責任是構成開放空間會議型態的兩大要素。和一般既定的會議流程相比,與會者有更充分的機會來展現他們對議題的熱忱,並可自行決定對此會議的貢獻及學習有多大,也是與會者自己可以決定在會中或會後想負擔的責任有多少。
An Open Space meeting has two sources of fuel, passion and responsibility. Participants are given full opportunity to follow their passion, rather than a meeting agenda, to determine what they contribute and what they learn. Participants also decide how much responsibility they will take, both during the meeting, and beyond.

因為與會者的熱忱,及對會中所需擔負責任及承諾的自主性,使他們在會後有更大的衝勁來落實會議中達成的協議,也因每個與會者在會議之後都可拿到會議的完整記錄,讓每個人對下一步的行動及方向更明確。
Because people follow their passion, and determine their own level of responsibility, commitments made during the meeting have a higher likelihood of being followed through after the meeting. At the end of an Open Space event each participant has a complete document of all the discussions, and clear picture of the next actions.

世界各地的開放空間
OPEN SPACE ACROSS THE WORLD

開放空間的科技(OST)在世界各地越來越被廣泛應用,尤其是當作一個團隊流程的選擇—例如會議、規劃、學習以及分享資訊;在需要包容多元性的場合、具有潛在衝突、持續且快速的變革、而且沒有人知道正確答案是什麼。開放空間的科技提供了在組織及社區當中不當權的人與領導人都有機會參與,分享重要的智慧以及經驗,也同時對大家同感興趣以及熱情的事項負起責任。團體人數從十人到一千人都可以運用。
Open Space Technology (OST) is being used more and more often as a process of choice – for conferences, meetings, planning, learning and sharing information; in situations that include diversity, potential conflict, rapid and on-going change, and when there is no clear direction or no one knows the “answer”. OST provides a forum for those people in organizations and communities who are not in positions of power, alongside established leaders, to share critical wisdom and experience, but also to take responsibility for those things they have an interest in and passion for. And it works with groups from 10-1000 participants.

以下是能夠代表一些非企業界使用開放空間的科技得到驚人改變的例子:
The following examples are representational of non-business programs that have enabled incredible positive change:

在瑞典全國二百五十位政治人物參與的會議.
An event for 250 local politicians from all over Sweden

蘇格蘭的議會運用在大型團體契約上面,參與團體包含社會、人民住屋以及志工委員會的成員。第一次會議在Glasgow市的一所大學舉行。共有八十八位參加,吸引蘇格蘭各界人士包含公共事務、志工團體以及社區團體,以幫助未來兩年社會公義委員會的議程設計。這次的會議是將所有的問題列出來,而非找出行動點。總共有五十七個議題被提出並進行小組討論,並再列出另外十二個議題希望有時間繼續討論。
A contract for a large group process from the Scottish Parliament, including the Social inclusion, Housing and Voluntary Sector Committee. This first event was held at one of the universities in Glasgow. There were 88 attendees, drawn from a wide range of public, voluntary and community bodies from all over Scotland, helping to form the next two years of agenda for the Social Justice Committee. So the event was to raise issues, not action points. A total of 57 issues was raised and discussed in small groups, and the whole group posted 12 further issues they would have liked to work on, if there had been time.

美國一個學區的五百五十位老師、家長、居民以及行政人員運用這個方法討論、甚至論辯如何改善學區的教育並同時處理預算危機。參與者自行提出議題,項目包含了:學區財務管理、縮短上課週數以及裁減人員、用餐服務計畫、處理缺乏意願以及成績不佳的學生,甚至討論了關閉學校的可能性。在會議結束之後,與會者列出了若需關閉學校的評估原則,包含了社區的需要、鄰近學校吸收學生的可能性、營運以及維護成本並且列出了關閉學校的各種方案。這份會議報告受到學校董事會的重視,在組織重組時採用。
A group of 550 teachers, parents, local residents and administrators in an American school district met to discuss, and in some cases argue over, how to improve education and deal with the districts budget crisis. Setting their own agenda, topics included the district’s money management, shortening the school week and cutting staff, the food service plan, dealing with unwilling and failing students, even the possibility of closing the school. By the end of the meeting the group had drawn up a list of guidelines for reviewing school closures, including community need, the ability of neighboring schools to absorb additional students, the cost of operations and maintenance, and a list of alternatives to school closings. The proceedings of the meeting were then used by the school board in their restructuring process.

美國國家森林服務區有幾區運用開放空間會議來討論包括資源回收的問題,有二百二十四人代表六十五個組織聚集討論公共用地的使用相關問題。
Several divisions of the US National Forest Service used Open Space around issues including recycling and with 224 people representing 65 organizations to meet on the issue of access to public land.

在羅馬尼亞布拉索夫市,有七十二位人員運用OST針對心理衛生主題開會,與會人士包含地方政府、非政府組織、醫療人員、記者、使用者、曾經使用者等等。這個會議為時一天半,具體實踐會中討論的優先事項的承諾高達百分之九十五!追蹤成果,有五個城市實踐了這些優先事項同時有一組負責推動全國政策制定。
Seventy-two people from local governments, NGOs, medical staff, journalists, users, ex-users etc. in mental health in Brasov, Romania. The event lasted one and half days and the commitment for implementing the priorities was 95%! At last count, the priorities are being realized in five cities and through one steering group on national policy.

去年最令人驚歎的開放空間會議是由某校三十位學生會代表—年齡十三歲到十九歲不等—在兩天半的時間所作之行動規劃會議。他們運用得十分自然,如魚得水。一週後,他們邀請我們(指會議引導者)到學校的例會去。結果他們用開放空間會議方式舉行。我從沒看過這麼快的技術移轉。當然,會議十分有效,每個人都非常驚訝…十幾年來第一次有效的學生會—兩個小時內從八個議題討論小組產生下一步的行動…非常接近我所謂的受激勵的組織。如果學生能夠開始運用開放空間會議,也許我們人類和這個星球還有救。
A most wonderful OS last year was with 30 student council representatives from a local high school aged 13 through 19 - two and a half days of action planning. They took to it like fish to water. They then invited us to their regular session in their school a week later. And they did it in open space...I have never seen such immediate transfer. Of course, it worked, everyone was flabbergasted...after decades the first productive session: 2 hours total with next steps being reported from 8 issue groups...pretty close to what I think could be an inspired organization. If the kids take to Open Space there may well be hope for our species on this planet.

美國和平組織在世界各地的青少年發展活動當中運用開放空間,同時在兩年內改變了和平組織幫助志工準備工作的方法。組織當中的訓練部門負責提供技術服務給九十個國家超過六千五百民志工。開放空間會議相對於傳統的會議形式具有更強的威力,特別是精力與承諾感。
The US Peace Corps has used Open Space all over the world with its Youth Development programs, and within the span of two years, changed how the Peace Corps helps its volunteers prepare for and organize their work. The training department was responsible for providing technical support to more than 6,500 volunteers in 90 countries. The contrast between Open Space and our traditional meetings was powerful, especially in terms of energy and commitment.

在加拿大的一個省政府運用開放空間的科技在各種集會場合當中,從財務規劃會議、資訊科技實行會議、跨司法職業的共同體建立、專業社群的建立等等。我們的團體幾乎每兩個月就期待一次開放空間會議。另外也用這個方法舉行本省之政府與企業界的研討會。
One large Provincial Ministry (in Canada) uses OST for various types of gatherings, from financial planning, IT implementation, cross jurisdictional community building, establishing communities of practice with regard to agility. One group is looking at Open Space every 2 months. Another for forums involving business and government across the Province.

我剛剛在國際引導者協會(International Association of Facilitators)年會前帶完主題為「開放空間如何轉換我們對於團隊引導的了解」的研討會。在主題發展出來之後,整個團隊花了一整個下午和隔天早上運用開放空間做討論。跨夜的時間是突破的關鍵點。隔天早上「啊哈」靈光一閃是整個會議的高潮。
I just completed a pre-conference workshop for the International Association of Facilitators on how Open Space transforms our understanding of facilitation. After developing the theme the group went for an afternoon and the next morning in Open Space. The overnight was critical to the breakthroughs. The ‘ah ha's’ that next morning were the high point.

在澳洲南部的阿德雷德市政府舉辦了一次活動以介紹開放空間為規劃流程的方式。有一家建設公司的總裁建議將開放空間會議用在找出市民心中的希望,如何建造馬里安市(Marion)的文化中心。馬里安市的市區散佈在幾個郊區,面積比阿德雷德市還大,總人數有八萬人。會議的結果出乎規劃者與建築師的意料之外。許多原來規劃中他們認為很重要的元素—如圖書館與藝廊—均不是觸動居民的元素。相反的,居民反映了文化中心他們具有熱情的是表演藝術的場地,可以聚會思考的地方,同時與原住民文化相連結,青少年可以隨時進來休閒,同時在外在環境的設計。
A program to introduce OS as a planning process in a local government authority in Adelaide, South Australia. The CEO of a planning and architectural firm suggested that OS be used initially to find out what the residents of Marion, a city comprising several suburbs of greater metropolitan Adelaide, making up a population of about 80 000, wished to see happen in their proposed new cultural center. What emerged was a total surprise to the planners and architects. Several components they had deemed to be important, included in their planning document, such as a library and art gallery, were not touched on in the community consultations based on OS. Instead, passion expressed by participants was for elements which could be construed as 'the heart of the cultural center,' such as a performing arts facility, a meeting place for ideas, links with a local Aboriginal center, a drop-in venue for young people, and design of the external environs.

在一家大型的市中心醫院當中,心臟外科運用開放空間會議討論這個議題「在這樣的工作量下,我們如何增加工作效率以準時回家?」這個看來直接但是卻十分複雜的問題牽涉到部門中的每一個人,從打掃清潔的員工、護理員工、心臟外科醫師、麻醉師一直到設備技師。在加上在醫療保健產業中傳統的階層觀念,許多檯面下的問題,以及有一些外聘的專業人員加上其他五個部門來的支援員工。
A group in the cardiac surgery section of the Operating Room in a large urban hospital met to explore the issue: "Given our current caseload, how can we increase efficiency so we all get home on time?" This may seem straight forward, but it's a very complex problem involving everyone from cleaning staff to nursing staff to cardiac surgeons to anesthesiologists to equipment attendants. Add to the stew the traditional hierarchy within health care, half a dozen hidden agendas, and the involvement of several layers of self-employed professionals as well as employees from five different unions.

以「安全的學校」為主題的開放空間會議,他們邀請額外一百五十位行政人員、老師、學生以及社區領袖(包含警察)、學校董事會、社會服務處人員均被邀請參加。在不同的老師聯盟、董事會、渥太華政府當中已經有間隙存在,所以來參加的老師人數比希望的少,大約有一百人。然而這仍是一次非常成功的開放空間會議,形成了強烈的關係連結,三十五個小組討論報告分享給全部的人,興致高昂全場充滿真誠分享與新點子。
Invitations were extended to 150 administrators, teachers, students, and community leaders (including the Police) on "Safe Schools" and included school board staff, administrators, a few teachers, students, community police, and social service personnel. There is great turmoil between teachers unions, the boards and the government in Ontario, Canada, so the number of teachers was less than hoped for. About 100 came. However, it was a resoundingly successful Open Space, with strong relationships forming, 35 small group session reports shared and distributed to all, high spirits and real sharing of ideas all around.

何時應該運用開放空間會議?何時不應該?
When to use OS? When not to?


When Open Space is Suitable:
適合用開放空間會議的時機:

當參與者的背景非常不同且多元,並必須處理複雜並具有前再衝突的議題時。
Open Space Technology is appropriate where a diverse group of people must deal with complex and potentially conflicting martial.

沒有人知道答案
Nobody knows the answer.

會議之後與會者持續地參與是成功的要件
Ongoing participation is required for success.

高階領導人希望整個團隊參與找尋答案
Senior management wants to engage the whole system in finding the answer.

最適當的反應時間是昨天(意味事情緊急)
Response time is “yesterday”.

不適合用開放空間的時機:
When Open Space is NOT suitable:

答案是已知的
The answer is already known.

客戶認為他們已經知道答案了
Sponsors think they know the answer.

客戶感到必須掌控一切的需要
Sponsors feel that need to be in charge and control.

「開放空間會議的成功與否不在會議引導者本身,而是這些先決條件是否滿足。這些先決條件存在越多,越可能成功。」
"The key to a successful Open Space Technology program is not the facilitator, but the pre-requisites. The more suitable factors that are present, the more likely to be successful."


開放空間會帶來的成效
Deliverables Results of Open Space Meeting
By Harrison Owen 何理森‧歐文

與會者足夠關心的每一個議題都將會被攤在檯面上
Every single issue that anybody cares about enough to raise will be "on the table".

所有的問題都可以得到人們希望的程度之討論
All issues will receive as much discussion as people care to give them.

所有的討論都會被紀錄下來並收編成冊,讓每一位參與者都擁有。
All discussion will be captured in a book, and made available to the participants.

所有的問題會找出優先順序
All issues will be prioritized.

所有相關的問題都會被彙整
Related issues will be converged.

接下來的行動都會被擔起責任
Responsibility will be taken for next step actions.

開放空間其他可能的益處:
Other Benefits of Open Space (what might happen):

(Practitioners comments)

「它是一種符合成本效益的團體轉變的方法特別是中到大型的團隊。」
Cost efficient method for engaging medium to large sized groups in collective transformation.

「釋放禁錮的熱情」
Unleashes pent up passion.

「剛好足夠的架構以釋放創造力與自由」
Enough structure to release creativity and freedom.

「重新喚醒組織的精神」
An opportunity for revival of organization’s spirit.

「容易準備」
It is easy to prepare.

「任何大小的團隊都適合」
It can work for any size of group.

「在開放空間會議當中,我屢屢目睹人們展現傾聽的能力並且真正考慮其他人的觀點。」
In Open Space, without exception, I have witnessed that people demonstrate the ability to listen and truly consider other people’s perspectives

「能夠體認並接受對整個團隊最好的解答」
The insight to recognize and accept the solution that best serves the whole

「產生並且貢獻大於小我的想法」
The generating and contributing of ideas that are greater than oneself

「總是有解答」的知識與態度」
The knowledge and attitude that there is always a solution

「考量生命各個層面」
The concern for all aspects of life

「能夠有信心地去詳細、透徹的討論」
The confidence to discuss mindfully, thoughtfully

「沒有個人檯面下的想法」
Clear of personal agendas

「能夠邁向一個共同的目標的工作能力」
The capability to work in unity toward a common goal

「能夠以尊重去溝通的優雅態度」
The grace to communicate with respect.

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