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12/2013 對話訊息:「 圖像引導」| Graphic Facilitation

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「 圖像引導」

你是否曾經希望能有一種比白板上無數的筆記還要有效、可以將團體的想法在會議中更有效呈現的方法?圖像引導就是一種比較好的做法。  

圖像引導 (記錄或抄寫)用圖像的方式來幫助引導會議,記錄談話中出現的資訊。就如同心智繪圖解釋關鍵重點之間的關連,圖像也創造出明確的集體記憶,在當下記錄團體成員的想法,也繪製出企業策略的設計、社會責任的辯論、探索未來科技,還有其他令人好奇又關鍵的題材。 

無論是個別或團體,透過藝術形態進行圖像引導,呈現出另一種展現想法、洞察和學習的方式。參與者可以在一大張紙上用藝術的形態檢視他們的問題、願景、情境和成果。影像的關連有的鬆散、有的自由發揮,有的緊密;同時,也讓喜愛影像的人有很多機會和引導者、仲裁者、諮詢顧問或講師進行共同創作,一同擁抱對話的美感,也強化參與者的學習,了解主題在不同層面的意義。

個案1

曾有一家環保機構,機構內的員工有諸多不和,也因此導致許多員工開始出現焦慮引起的身心症。為了化解這些困難,該機構請了糾紛調解的專業人員和一位圖像引導師進場提供協助。

衝突的關鍵是該機構正準備將數百萬元的金額投入於一些基礎結構的方案,需要許多年才能完成。有一個辦公室負責交付金額、督導計畫的進度,另一個辦公室則負責浪費、虛報、貪污的問題。督導認為針對貪污的問題,大家必須分享訊息,因為「大家都在同一條船上」,但是每個員工考績好壞,都會受到督導找到的訊息的影響。

圖像引導師決定用豐富的圖片來說明這複雜的情況,讓大家在討論的同時不要忽略整體的情況。引導師分開約見兩方的同事,在大型的紙張(60x180公分)上,用彩色筆幫每一位同仁畫出,在他們眼中的這項九年計畫的情況(雖然大多數的圖像引導中,大多數的圖像都是在當下畫出的)。圖像用文字和圖騰串連成一個流線圖,標示計畫的不同階段,並各別標示出兩位心目中出現衝突的點。

當團體看見兩方的圖像圖時,發現兩方的圖幾乎完全相同,心目中的衝突點也完全相同。一直以來兩人都以為對方想法完全不同的誤解,在那瞬間就化解。在不到十分鐘的時間裡,兩個辦公室的員工一起決定在這長達九年的過程中一起合作一部分。如果沒有圖像引導的協助,引導師認為兩個辦公室不可能跳脫彼此互鬥的惡性循環,這麼快就有所行動。

圖像引導跳脫完全是語言的做法,協助衝突的解決,也透過以下的方式輔助複雜情境的掌控: 

  • 回顧多種層面的表達,
  • 顯現出想法之間的關連性,
  • 提供一種存放資訊的方式, 
  • 說明複雜的活動流程,
  • 為團體注入活力, 
  • 幫助團體凝聚足夠的專注,一起共事, 
  • 提供明確的思考結構。

個案 2 

在舊金山國際機場仍在建構的過程中,噪音和交通的議題為機場和附近的住戶帶來很多的衝突。規劃人員列出36項舒緩的方案,但是用了很多困難的技術用詞。這些方案要在一個公共研習會中進行討論,因此圖像引導師將這36個項目轉換為36個圖像,說明這些方案,並引導大家針對這些方案進行討論。現場的民眾用這些圖像來討論許多關於這些方案的資訊,並標示出他們認為較重要的事項,也針對其他方案提供建議。

圖像引導的概念是一套可以教導的原型和圖像語言的系統。請不要因為您「不擅於畫圖」而輕忽這個工具。幾個簡單、易學的圖片,一些易懂的版型,搭配一張大型的紙,就能讓您的引導有更高的效能。

以上圖像是由Alicia Bramlett繪製,她是一位圖像引導師,也是Value Web的成員(www.thevalueweb.org)

本文參考Ball, G.的文章 (1998) Graphic Facilitation Focuses A Group’s Thoughts.( 圖像引導讓團體的想法更聚焦) 網路:http://www.mediate.com/articles/ball.cfm

Graphic Facilitation

Did you ever wish there were a better way to capture and organize a group's ideas during a meeting than by taking endless notes on flipcharts?  Graphic facilitation is a better way.  

Graphic facilitation (recording or scribing) uses visual representations to help guide a meeting and record information brought up during the conversation.  Just as mind maps depict relationships between key points, graphics also create an explicit group memory which capture group members’ thoughts in real time and depict the design of corporate strategies, debates of social responsibility, exploration of future technologies and more topics both curious and essential. 

By drawing or creating with art forms individually or with a group graphic facilitation participants have another means for revealing their ideas, insights and leanings.  Participants can view their questions, visions, scenarios and outcomes in an artful synthesis across large rolls of paper.  The image connections can be either loose and free flowing or tightly structured; and yet there is still a huge room for graphic lovers to co-create with facilitators, mediators, consultants or lectors to embrace the beauty of conversation and to support participants’ learning about the different levels of a topic’s meaning.

Case study 1: 

There was once an environmental regulatory agency whose employees were so continually at odds with each other that a number of staff began to develop stress-related psychosomatic illnesses. To begin resolving the difficulties, a dispute resolution practitioner and a graphic facilitator were called in to help.

The conflict centered on the agency's process for making multi-million dollar investments in infrastructure projects that would take nine years to complete. One office was responsible for allocating money to contractors and overseeing the projects, while another office looked for instances of waste, fraud, and corruption.  Inspectors felt employees should be open about corruption ‘since we're all on the same team,’ but the employee’s own job-performance reports depended on what the inspectors found.

The graphic facilitators chose to create rich pictures of this complex situation to enable discussion without losing sight of the context.  The facilitators met with employees from each office separately and, using colored markers on 4-foot-by-12-foot sheets of butcher paper, created graphic representations of each office's version of the nine-year project cycle (although usually graphic facilitation is done in real time, as the group is speaking).  The graphic representations consisted of words and icons linked into a flow, showing the various steps in the project, and in each version identified places where each office said the conflicts occurred.

When the groups looked at each other's graphic maps they realized they were nearly identical and the conflicts were in the same places.  Their belief that the other branch saw things very differently just dissolved.  In less than 10 minutes after reviewing the maps, employees of the two offices jointly chose a portion of the nine-year process to work on, together.  Without the aid of graphic facilitation, the facilitators don't believe the two offices ever would have moved beyond accusations and blame so quickly.

Graphic facilitation supports the resolution of conflicts by going beyond a solely verbal approach and helping manage the complexity of group discussions by: 

  • reflecting back the expression of multiple perspectives, 
  • showing connections between thoughts, 
  • providing a way to store information, 
  • describing a complex flow of activity, 
  • energizing a group, 
  • helping a group maintain sufficient focus to work together, and 
  • providing an explicit structure for thinking.

Case study 2: 

In a development process for San Francisco International Airport, noise and traffic issues were the subject of conflict between the airport and its neighbors. The planners created a list of 36 different mitigations for airplane noise, but used a lot of technical jargon.  The mitigations were set to be discussed at a public workshop, so the graphic facilitators converted the jargon into 36 icons to explain the mitigations and facilitate discussion about them.  Members of the public used the icons to discuss a great deal of information related to each mitigation, to indicate their priorities and to make suggestions for other mitigations.

The concepts of graphic facilitation are a teachable system of archetypal templates and an icon language.

Don’t dismiss this tool because you "don't draw well enough;" a few simple and easily-learned icons, some straightforward templates, and a large piece of paper can add a great deal to the effectiveness of your facilitation work.  

Illustration by Alicia Bramlett, graphic facilitator and member of The Value Web (www.thevalueweb.org)

Text is based on the article by Ball, G. (1998) Graphic Facilitation Focuses A Group’s Thoughts. Online:

http://www.mediate.com/articles/ball.cfm

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