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07/2013 朝邦對話新訊息:肯定式探詢新探尋 | Appreciative Inquiry Revisited

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肯定式探詢新探尋

分享者/引導者: 余佩珊 創意顧問、引導師、東海大學企管系副教授

『肯定』-- 「欣賞,珍惜,珍視,與肯定」。帶著好奇,帶著聆聽。

『探詢』-- 「探索—開放未來、探詢—詢問與聆聽、與探尋—冒險與尋找」。

 AI的過程-- 開放答案、開放心靈、開放團體共享與共創的過程。

肯定式探詢發源於1980年,當時身為博士生的David Cooperrider 在例行的訪談中,發現了『從現在創造未來』的想像空間與生命力,促使他走上了一條嶄新的新道路。卅年後,經過了豐富的學理實證、實務操作,以及社群分享,我們看到:AI的確是一個很紮實的典範,且通過了時間和產學界的的嚴苛驗證。在廿一世紀的領袖學中,AI跟正向心理學都不會缺席,且與浮顯式(Emergent leadership)的領導學虛實呼應。AI的精神與初衷不變,兩者仍舊環環相扣,順著正向想像的大道,落實到組織、社群和個人發展的最佳發展;

AI的原則,從原先的四個,成為現有的五個: Positive 正向, Constructionist 建構, Anticipatory 期盼, Simultaneous 浮顯式, 和 Poetic 生成性。AI的模型,從早期的 4-D:Discover 發現, Dream 發想, Design 發展, Destiny 發生。逐漸演化成為 4-I: Inquire 探詢, Imagine 想像, Innovate 創新, Implement 執行。這與古典模型最大的分別在於:先針對探詢主題定焦,然後再展開探詢,同時脫離Destiny一詞具有宿命論的聯想。另外一個 5-I模型有出現: Initiate 定焦, Inquire 探詢, Inspire 啟發, Innovate 創新, Implement 執行;它的細膩之處是把探詢主軸的定焦過程,直接放入模型操作中,讓顧問與客戶之間,可以在合作的更早期間,就以更具浮顯式、期盼以及生成性原則的方式,去一起共創出未來要探詢的方向和格局。

圖像表達:AI的圖像操作,可以出現在訪談後、價值辨認的想像,也可以針對心中潛藏顧慮的正面迎擊。針對一些對於AI『過分樂觀、忽略挑戰、掃開矛盾與隱憂』的<自我感覺良好質疑>,現在的AI操作,會以描繪生命樹的方式,去分別辨認出:若心中充滿了隱憂,即使生命是一棵土壤肥沃、根基紮實的樹,也將因為隱憂而退卻不前、停止生長的探詢。 若心中帶著價值的正面激勵往前走,即使弱項仍在,會有更大的克服機會與力量。從生命樹中,繼續創造出個人的高張力主張(provocative proposition)。

最後,為AI的應用之道作些說明:

  • AI的活動規模,可以從個人的內省、到特定的團隊、特定部門、組織整體、一直到跨國性的高峰會。
  • AI的業界運用:
    • 營利組織:服務業的教育訓練績效考核,從評估方案evaluation program,到價值方案Valuation Program。不再以冰冷而表面理性的方式,去看待行動的好壞,而是創造行動的最佳價值。同時,相較於濫觴的SWOT分析,AI顧問會以Strength, Opportunities, Aspiration, Results(SOAR)的方式,去跟客戶公司合作,從現況開始,與未來想像作連結。
    • 非營利組織:教會,失智症協會,教區社群關係發展,弱勢關懷發展等等
    • 教育界:課程規劃,系所策略,學校中長程發展計畫,學區合作等等
    • 政府:美國軍方大量運用AI,最著名的例子為海軍的全球高峰會,匯集了各個跨國、及跨部會的相關層級軍官和行政人員,探討海軍最佳管理、以及最高張力發展的未來想像。

參與者心得分享: 

  1. From “Yes, but…” to “Yes, and…” 跨出肯定式探詢的第一步,  分享者: Rose Tsol 組織學習協會

6月16日下午對我而言是一個充滿Wow 的下午!  在佩珊的引導下,我對AI(Appreciative Inquiry)有不一樣的想像空間,也激起我重新認識AI的動力。之前我認為AI就是正面思考嘛,就是肯定對方的優點,讚賞別人做對的部分(包括團體或團隊),不要去碰觸別人與自己的負面情緒,…這樣粗淺、概括認識AI的結果是:我們常常會發生口是心非的焦慮及言行不一的表現!這都是我們習焉不察的思考模式所造成的!

一直以來,我們總期待要建立獨立思考的文化,鼓勵孩子及自己要養成批判性思考的習慣,因為我們害怕人云亦云! 在我們的生活中,的確也充斥著批判的思考模式,因為我們需要找出問題的焦點!「但是…」(Yes,but…) 的思考模式,就是這樣漸漸養成的。我們常常從問題出發,常說問對了問題,就會找到答案,卻忘了去問這個「問題」,究竟指的是「problem」還是「question」! 

「但是…」的思考模式,有時還是很管用的,不過轉換「是的,而且…」(Yes,and…) 的思考模式,卻往往讓你在Wow!的驚喜中,輕輕鬆鬆地解決了難題;而更大的魅力,是發生在集體創造的時刻,AI的理論或手法無論如何演進,我認為「Discover」永遠是創造無數個Wow!的核心。

多用「是的,而且…」(Yes,and…)是跨出肯定式探詢的第一步!正面思考說來容易,行出來卻一點也不輕鬆!少用「但是…」(Yes,but…)這說起來很簡單,不過不用點心是很容易就忘記的!「是的,而且…」要成為直覺反應,唯有不斷提醒自己,而且是有意識的經常使用。 

我最大的收穫,在於更明白AI語言建構的魅力,以及背後想要創造高張力主張的夢想,同時也經由佩珊所提供的學習藍圖,讓我們可以按圖索驥地跨出學習肯定式探詢的第一步。

2) 分享者: Jean Peng, Vice General Manager, Training and Development Greater China, TUV Rheinland Taiwan Ltd.

第一次聽到肯定式探詢(AI=Appreciative Inquiry) 是在2003年5月,當時在籌劃公司一年一度全員的訓練活動,為配合當年的主題"滿意、成就及價值員工"。於是我們接受引導師的建議以AI的方法來協助公司找出員工關心的議題,當時AI的相關資訊相當匱乏,但我們非常肯定用正向思考的方式去引導同仁,於是就大膽用AI來引導同仁的討論,透過八位引導師,帶領240位同仁在短短的4小時內,提出了15個創新的提案,並且超過80%以上的提案被有效的執行。成果是令人滿意的。

這幾年有愈來愈多的人投入引導師及教練這個領域並各有所長,我身為公司員工發展主管更應該了解各家之長,因此參加朝邦基金會主辦的AI分享會來了解AI這幾年的發展及應用,經由佩珊的帶領,讓我重新了解AI的精神及方法,及如何廣泛的應用在各種議題上,不管是大的組織或是個人都可以用AI來訂定未來的目標。AI的核心"正向思考"也是這幾年許多學者推崇的理念。這次的分享會重新燃起我對AI的興趣,並希望有機會能參加完整的AI工作仿,以便能實際應用在工作上去幫助個人及他人成長。

3) 分享者: Claudia Lau 劉凱銘/正向領導力講師及教練/White Space Ltd. 香港

感謝佩珊老師的分享。3個小時的分享讓我重新對AI有加深的瞭解,也更瞭解它近代的一些新發展。最喜歡的是AI把焦點放在開拓我們本身已經擁有的正向資源上,這樣的方向取代傳統的Problem Solving/ SWOT的手法,帶出更多的可能性。

其中一個活動是讓我們兩個人一組,用Discovery的方式去探詢我們個人的一些價值觀跟資源,對我來講是很有啓發的,可以充滿正能量的去重新建構我想要的“生命之樹”-它到底將要長出甚麼樣的果子。重新從學員的角度去走一遍這個流程,感覺是很震撼的。另一方面,看著我的夥伴分享她的故事,讓我在短時間內用欣賞的角度去認識她,很奇妙!很棒!

4) 分享者: Sheila

AI的學習及運用總是讓人心情愉悅及動力滿滿,而佩珊在創意及圖像運用上的專業,讓這個下午更增添了許多輕快與想像力!

其中有個練習段落是兩人成對分享最具生命力的經驗故事,聆聽的夥伴在聽完對方十分鐘的故事後,要回饋三個「你所聽到對方最”珍視”的」、以及一個「你聽到對方的渴望與夢想是…」。練習的過程中,我發現這兩個提點好有力量。

當天我剛好遇到一個完全陌生的夥伴,讓我可以輕鬆地放下評斷、沒有預設立場、好奇地傾聽他所敘說的故事背後,到底他真正「珍視」、「在乎」、「堅持」的正面價值是什麼?

之前有次運用AI尋找「正面核心」”Positive Core”時,花了一些時間心力,“認真”地探詢,雖然也是正面積極的經驗,卻少了那麼一點輕鬆。這次在佩珊的帶領下,卻讓我毫不費力的聽到了分享夥伴最重視的價值觀,以及他引以為傲的地方。探詢渴望與夢想,也讓我專注於言語表達之外並回到「人」本身。我的夥伴也對我展現了同樣神奇的觀察與回饋,我很驚訝對方可以在這麼短的時間看進我的心裡及長久以來的喜好(而被了解及讚賞,也是美好體驗的一部份)。

回家的路上我想,如果在日常工作上,當同事跟我敘述某個事件或狀況時,我可不可以也有一樣的開放傾聽,幫助我聽到他言語背後或事實數據之外的正面價值?我也可以聽見他真正的夢想與渴望嗎?如果可以,那一定很美妙!謝謝佩珊,謝謝我那天的夥伴,讓我再一次感受AI的魔力!

Appreciative Inquiry Revisited

By Pei-shan Yu, Ph.D. creativity advisor, facilitator and Business Professor at Tunghai University

The term Appreciative Inquiry was developed in 1980 by then doctoral student David Cooperrider.  While conducting routine interviews he noticed a growth in creativity and vitality as interviewees spoke with a “from here I create the future” perspective.  After thirty years of empirical studies and field practices, the Appreciative Inquiry model has gained a solid academic standing among the 21st century’s preeminent leadership studies, corresponding to the fields of emergent leadership and positive psychology.  

AI’s original 4-D model was structured according to four stages: Discovery, Dream, Design, and Destiny.  Recently a 4-I model emerged with the four stages of: Inquire, Imagine, Innovate, and Implement; placing the focus on inquiry and diverging from destiny’s fatalistic association.  A 5-I model is also in use: Initiate, Inquire, Inspire, Innovate, and Implement; offering a structure for closer cooperation between the consultant and the client as they work to generate a new sense direction.

Following the interviews Appreciative Inquiry works with images, inviting clients to visualize their values and to surface and resolve latent worries.  AI practitioners use the image of a tree whose growth is stunted by worries despite being firmly rooted in fertile soil.  By using a strategy of extreme optimism to help people experience good qualities in themselves, AI can generate a motivation to overcome one’s challenges and move forward.  By using visualizations, the individual is able to continuously create a “provocative proposition” to motivate their own forward movement. 

How to apply Appreciative Inquiry:

Appreciative Inquiry has a broad range of application, from personal introspection, to team, department, organization and transnational summit.  For profit-driven organizations, the service sector’s practice of performance assessment have shifted from evaluation of high scores versus low scores to focusing on actions that create optimal value.  In contrast to a SWOT analysis, Appreciative Inquiry uses the acronym SOAR to focus on clients’ strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results, starting from the current situation and operating based on an image of the future.

AI is used extensively in non-profit organizations including churches and community associations caring for vulnerable communities.  In education sectors AI has been used in curriculum planning and departmental policy, in long-term development plans for schools, and for cooperation among school districts.  In the government, the U.S. military uses Appreciative Inquiry extensively; For example, the Navy’s global summit convenes transnational and inter-ministerial officers and executives to discuss how best to manage the Navy in relation to imagining possible future scenarios.

Participants’ Sharing:

  1. From “Yes, but…” to “Yes, and…”, Taking the first step in Appreciative Inquiry.  Sharing by Rose, The Society for Organizational Learning.

The afternoon of June 16 was full of  “wows!”  Under Pei-shan’s facilitation I gained a different understanding of Appreciative Inquiry, and am inspired to rediscover the power of AI.  In the past I thought AI is similar to positive thinking and is about affirming others’ strengths, appreciating other’s good deeds, and to avoid negative sentiments between oneself and others.  This was just a superficial understanding.  

In mainstream culture children are taught to have critical thinking and to focus on the problem.  “Yes, but...” thinking grew from this problem-based mindset.  Shifting to a “Yes, and...” approach surprised me by resolve a matter in a relaxed way.  Appreciative Inquiry’s techniques are discovery-based and leads to countless “wows!”

Positive thinking however is more easily said than done.  Saying “but” sounds simple, but it’s also easy to forget to use it with care!  For “Yes, and...” to become an instinctive response one must intentionally use it regularly.  

My greatest take-aways in this workshop is a better understanding of Appreciative Inquiry’s linguistic structure, intent to create a high level of tension to construct a dream, and Pei-shan’s blueprint showing the first steps in AI.

(2) Jean Peng/Vice General Manager, Training and Development, Greater China, TUV Rheinland Taiwan Ltd.

The first time I heard of Appreciative Inquiry was in May 2003 when I was planning my company’s annual employee training retreat using the theme of “satisfaction, achievement and valued employees.”  A facilitator recommended we use Appreciative Inquiry to help the company find the topics that employees care about.  Out eight facilitators convened 240 employees in a short four hours, raised 15 innovative proposals and more than 80% of the proposals were implemented effectively.  The results are very satisfying.

In the CP Yen Foundation’s Appreciative Inquiry sharing I gaining a better understanding of AI’s development and application.  Pei-shan reacquainted me with AI’s spirit and methods, as well as how to broadly apply different kinds of topics.  For large organizations or personal needs AI can be helpful in determining future goals.  AI’s core positive thinking has especially been a popular concept in recent years.  This sharing reignited my interest in AI and I hope I will have the opportunity to participate in a following and more comprehensive AI workshop to practice implementing how to help people grow.

3) Claudia Lau (劉凱銘), Positive Leadership Coach and Trainer, White Space Ltd, Hong Kong.

I am grateful for Pei-shan’s three hours of sharing which deepened my understanding of Appreciative Inquiry’s new developments.  I most like AI’s focus being placed on developing our inherently positive resources in place of traditional problem solving or SWOT approach and instead brings out more possibilities.

One of the workshop activities began with forming into pairs, using the Discovery approach to explore our personal values and resources, was very instructive for me, filling me with positive energy and reconnecting with what I want in my life.  Likewise, witnessing my partner sharing her story allowed me to get to know her in a short period of time from an appreciative perspective.  It’s simply wonderful and excellent!

4) Sheila

Appreciative Inquiry in study and application makes people feel good and full of energy.  Pei-shan’s professional and creative use of images moreover made this afternoon light and imaginative.

We did an activity in which two people shared stories about their life experiences, after listening for ten minutes, the partner will offer two forms of feedback: 1) what you heard your partner cherishes the most, 2) what you heard were your partner’s dreams and desires; while practicing this I found both forms of feedback have a lot of power in them.  That day I happened to pair up with a someone totally new to me, so I was able to easily put aside judgment, listening curiously for the story behind the narrative for what positive values does he really treasure, care about, and fight for?

In the past I had tried to do Appreciative Inquiry by looking for my “positive core”; this took some time and effort to seriously inquire, although this was  positive experience, it wasn’t a very relaxed experience.  This time under Pei-shan’s guidance, I was able to effortlessly hear my partner’s most important values and what makes him proud.  Inquiring about desire and dreams, also enabled me to focus on the person beyond the words.  My partner amazingly also expressed the same observation and feedback in me.  I was very surprised that in a short time my partner could see into my mind and long-standing preferences.  On my way home I wondered whether in daily work, when my colleagues and I describe an event or situation, could I also have the same open listening and hear what positive values are behind the data?  Can I also hear my colleagues’ true dreams and wishes?  If I could then that would be beautiful!  Thank you Pei-shan, and thank you to my partner that day, for letting me once again feel the magic of Appreciative Inquiry!

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